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Friday, 3 January 2014

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela: an inspiration for people all over the world.

READING COMPREHENSION – Read the following text and answer to the questions.
Rolihlahla Mandela was born on 18 July 1918. A teacher at school gave him the name Nelson. He was good at school. He studied law at university and became a lawyer in 1942.
Dutch people (who called themselves “Boers”) set up the first white colony in South Africa in 1652. Later British settlers came. Great Britain conquered the Dutch colony in 1815. South Africa became part of the British Empire. Gold was found in 1886: the country was rich. But it was not peaceful. White people and black people, who were in South Africa before the arrival of the settlers, fought for the control of the land.
When Mandela was a child, only white people were in the government. Black people were poor: they worked as servants, or on farms, in factories and gold mines. In 1944 Nelson Mandela became a member of the African National Congress or ANC. The ANC wanted black South Africans to have the same human rights as whites. In 1948 the South African government made new laws to keep white and black people separated. The new system was called 'apartheid'. Whites and blacks had  to live in separate areas. A white person and a black person could not marry, could not sit together at a table in a restaurant, or on a bus, or use the same toilet. Black children and white children went to different schools. Sports teams were all-white or all-black.
Mandela was a leader of the ANC. Inspired by Gandhi, he wanted a peaceful protest in South Africa.But in 1956, Mandela and 155 other people were arrested. He won the trial after five years and was set free.
In 1960 people made a peaceful protest against apartheid near Johannesburg. The police killed 69 black people. The government blamed the ANC, and banned it. Mandela became leader of a secret army. The police hunted him, and he had to hide and use disguises. He travelled to other countries to ask for help.
In 1961 South Africa became independent. Millions of people around the world supported the anti-apartheid movement. Many nations stopped trade with South Africa. Sports teams and famous people refused to go there. But the government didn’t want to change. In 1962 Mandela was arrested again. He was accused of sabotage and plotting against the government. In 1964, aged 46, he entered the prison of Robben Island. He had to stay there for the rest of his life. He spent 18 years in that prison. He had to do hard work. He could see only one visitor every 6 months. Then he was transported to another prison.
Mandela became the most famous prisoner in the world. He continued his peaceful protest. Even his guards admired him. At last, in 1988, the South African government began to make changes. In 1990, South Africa's new President FW de Klerk set Nelson Mandela free. Mandela and de Klerk agreed: no more fighting. Mandela asked all South Africans to work together in peace. In the elections of 1994, all black people in South Africa could vote for the first time. The ANC won the election. There was a new government. In May 1994, Nelson Mandela became South Africa's first black president. South African people were of all races and colours, working together. They called themselves the “rainbow nation”.
In 1993, Nelson Mandela and FW de Klerk received the Nobel Peace Prize. Mandela wrote a book called 'Long Walk to Freedom'. He retired in 1999. He died on the 5th of December, 2013, aged 95.

1.       Who gave Nelson this name?
2.       What job did he choose at university?
3.       Who were the Boers?
4.       How was S. Africa ruled when Mandela was young?
5.       What did the ANC want?
6.       What did the Apartheid rules say?
7.       How did Mandela want to protest?
8.       What happened in 1960?
9.       How did the world protest against Apartheid?
10.   Why did Mandela go to prison in 1964?
11.   Was this the first sentence after a trial for Mandela?
12.   How was his life in prison?
13.   Why was he so famous during his prison years?
14.   Who set Mandela free in 1990?
15.   What did he do after liberation?
16.   What happened in 1994?
17.   Why is South Africa called the “rainbow nation”?
18.   When did he receive the Nobel Peace Prize?
19.   What’s the title of his autobiography?
20.   Write at least 50 words giving  your opinion, your feelings and your thoughts on this great man.

Then click on: video à games à watch  play an audience with Mandela;  à at the end do the quiz
Watch the audioslideshow in:  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/8508592.stm