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Sunday, 24 October 2010

Simple Past form - Year 2

Come costruiamo il Simple Past Tense?



Ecco una mappa del simple past che puoi stampare copiaincollandola in un file di word:








V1
base
V2
past
V3
past participle

(questa colonna non ti serve per ora)
regular verbwork
explode
like
worked
exploded
liked
worked
exploded
liked
Il simple past di tutti i verbi regolari termina in -ed.
irregular verbgo
see
sing
went
saw
sang
gone
seen
sung
Il simple past di tutti i verbi irregolari è variabile. Devi impararli a memoria!
Non ti serve il participio passato per formare il simple past tense. In questa tabella è riportato solo per completezza.




Struttura per le  frasi affermative:

 
  • SOGGETTO   +   (VERBO BASE+ED)   per i verbi regolari
           Esempio: You played tennis


  • SOGGETTO   +   PAST FORM  per i verbi irregolari: seconda voce del paradigma

          Esempio: You ate an apple.

 Struttura per le  frasi negative per i verbi regolari e irregolari:


 
SOGGETTO   +  DIDN'T (= DID NOT)   +   VERBO BASE


Esempio: You didn't play tennis.
                  You didn't eat an apple.

 Struttura per le  frasi interrogative per i verbi regolari e irregolari:

 
 DID + SOGGETTO   +   VERBO BASE


Esempio: Did you play tennis?
               Did you eat an apple?

 Il verbo ausiliare did è lo stesso per tutte le persone = I did, you did, he did etc). 




subjectauxiliary verbmain verb
+Iwentto school.
Youworkedvery hard.
-Shedidnotgowith me.
Wedidnotworkyesterday.
?Didyougoto London?
Didtheyworkat home?




Eccezione! Il verbo to be (essere) è diverso


subjectmain verb
+I, he/she/itwashere.
You, we, theywerein London.
-I, he/she/itwasnotthere.
You, we, theywerenothappy.
?WasI, he/she/itright?
Wereyou, we, theylate?


Col past tense del verbo to benon usare ausiliari per le frasi negative ed interrogative
Per fare una domanda, scambia di posto il soggetto con il verbo! Esempi:
  • You were happy yesterday.
  • You were not (=weren't) happy yesterday.
  • Were you happy yesterday?


Short answers (risposte brevi):


Per le risposte brevi, usa lo stesso ausiliare che trovi nelle domande!


Esempi:


  • Was he at home yesterday? Yes, he was. / No, he wasn't.
  • Did you play tennis yesterday? Yes, I did. / No, I didn't.
  • Did you eat an apple yesterday? Yes, I did. / No, I didn't.


video



video


video


Lista dei verbi irregolari:


Practice:

http://www.bradleys-english-school.com/online/jigword/jigpast1.html
http://www.bradleys-english-school.com/online/jigword/jigpast3.html
http://www.bradleys-english-school.com/online/jigword/jigpast4.html
http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-1/exercise-english-989.php
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-past/exercises?03
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-past/exercises?04
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-past/exercises
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/irregular-verbs/exercise?1
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/irregular-verbs/exercise?0
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/tests/simple-past-1
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_statements.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_statements2.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_negation_sentences.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_negation_sentences2.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_negation_sentences3.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/questions/simple_past.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/questions/simple_past2.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_mix.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_mix2.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_ed.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_ed2.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/was_were.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/was_not_were_not.htm
http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/pastsimple/exercise2.swf
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/past-simple-exercise-8.html
http://www.english-room.com/pasttense_6a.htm
http://www.oup.com/elt/global/products/englishfile/elementary/a_grammar/file05/grammar05_d02/
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=1939

Simple Past tense games:

http://www.manythings.org/wbg/verbs_past2-mw.html
http://www.bradleys-english-school.com/online/concentration/past3.html
http://www.bradleys-english-school.com/online/concentration/past1.html
http://www.bradleys-english-school.com/online/matchingpairs/mpiregpast1.html
http://www.bradleys-english-school.com/online/matchingpairs/mpiregpast5.html



(where is the error in the position of the words in this picture?)









Simple past use

USE 1 - Azione conclusa nel passato









Usa il Simple Past per parlare di un'azione iniziata e finita nel passato in un determinato momento.


Esempi:
  • I saw a movie yesterday.
  • I didn't see a play yesterday.
  • Last year, I went to Japan.
  • Last year, I didn't go to Korea.
  • Did you have dinner last night?
  • She washed her car.
  • He didn't wash her car.



USE 2 - Serie di azioni concluse






Usa il Simple Past per parlare di una lista di azioni accadute nel passato in successione.


Esempi:
  • I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
  • He arrived from the airport at 8:00, went to the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
  • Did you take the milk, and then add the sugar?


 

USE 3 - Azioni di varia durata accadute nel passato




Il Simple past può essere usato per parlare di un'azione di una certa durata che è iniziata e finita nel passato.

In questo caso si possono usare espressioni come for two years (per due anni), for five minutes (per 5 minuti), all day (per tutto il giorno), all year (per tutto l'anno), etc.



Esempi:
  • I lived in Brazil for two years.
  • Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
  • They sat at the beach all day.
  • They did not stay at the party the entire time.
  • We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
  • A: How long did you wait for them?
    B: We waited for one hour.

 

USE 4 - Abitudini nel passato




ll Simple Past può essere usato anche per descrivere abitudini che si avevano in passato.

In questo caso si possono usare espressioni come always (sempre), often (spesso), usually (di solito), never (mai), when I was a child (quando ero piccolo/a), when I was younger (quando ero più giovane), etc.



Esempi:
  • I studied French when I was a child.
  • He played the violin.
  • He didn't play the piano.
  • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
  • She worked at the movie theater after school.
  • They never went to school, they always skipped class.




USE 5 - Fatti accaduti nel passato o generalizzazioni



Il Simple Past può essere usato anche per descrivere eventi accaduti nel passato o cose in genere sempre vere nel passato, che non sono più così adesso nel presente.



Esempi:
  • She was funny when she was a child, but now she is very seroius.
  • He didn't like tomatoes before.
  • Did you live in Texas when you were young?
  • People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.





(did you find all the errors in sentences of the pictures?)




Personal Object Pronouns - pronomi personali complemento

Questi sono i pronomi personali complemento, seguiti da alcune frasi di esempio:




Ricorda! L'oggetto della frase riceve l'azione del verbo.

I pronomi personali complemento vengono dopo un verbo o una preposizione!



numberperson
gender
personal pronouns
subjectobject
singular1stmale/femaleIme
2ndmale/femaleyouyou
3rdmalehehim
femalesheher
neuteritit
plural1stmale/femaleweus
2ndmale/femaleyouyou
3rdmale/female/neutertheythem


Esempi: (in ognuno dei casi, il primo esempio mostra un pronome soggetto, il secondo un pronome complemento):

  • I like coffee.
  • John helps me.


  • You love John.
  • John loves you.

  • He runs fast.
  • Do you see him?

  • She is intelligent.
  • I like her.

  • It is big.
  • Can you take it?


  • We go home.
  • Anthony comes with us.

  • You know me.
  • I know you!

  • They play football.
  • John plays with them.

Practice:

http://www.quia.com/cz/66710.html?AP_rand=661754168
http://www.1-language.com/englishcourse/unit8_grammar_exs.htm
http://www.1-language.com/englishcourse/unit8_grammar_exs2.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/pronouns/personal_pronouns3.htm
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/pronouns/exercises?02
http://www.english-4u.de/pers_pronouns_ex1.htm
http://www.english-4u.de/pers_pronouns_ex2.htm
http://www.english-4u.de/pers_pronouns_ex3.htm
http://www.english-4u.de/pers_pronouns_ex4.htm
http://www.english-4u.de/pers_pronouns_ex5.htm
http://www.english-4u.de/pers_pronouns_ex6.htm
http://perso.wanadoo.es/autoenglish/gr.pronoun.i.htm
http://a4esl.org/q/h/9901/jd-pronouns.html


video



Personal subject pronouns - pronomi personali soggetto

I pronomi personali soggetto sono:


Fai attenzione quando usi questi pronomi! Specialmente la terza persona singolare!

HE = si usa per un essere umano maschio

SHE = si usa per un essere umano femmina

IT = si usa per animali e cose.

Se si sta parlando del proprio animale domestico, e si sa se è un maschio o una femmina, si può usare he o she.

Practice:


http://www.nspeak.com/newbasic/grammatica/pronomiperson.htm
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=2410
http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-5556.php
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=1688
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=1014
http://www.english-room.com/quiz/02_pronouns_1.htm
http://www.my-english.edu.pl/index.php?id=22
http://personales.ya.com/mjandres/archivos/pronouns1.htm
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=2321
http://personales.ya.com/mjandres/archivos/pronouns1.htm
http://www.hseidensticker.de/unit0/subperpron.htm